Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
• Boswellia; Coleus forskohlii; Tylophora; Vitamin C; Ephedra (Unsafe)
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
• Acupuncture; Adrenal Extract; Aloe; Antioxidants; Astha-15 (an Ayurvedic Herbal Combination ) ; Brahmi ( Bacopa monniera ) ; Beta-carotene; Betaine Hydrochloride; Butterbur; Carum copticum (Ajwain) ; Chamomile; Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10); Damiana; Elecampane; Elimination Diet; Essential Fatty Acids ( Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids) ; Essential Oil of Eucalyptus; Fish Oil; Flaxseed Oil; Food Allergen Elimination Diet; Garlic; GLA from Evening Primrose Oil; Green-lipped Mussel; Grindelia; Horehound; Hyssop; Hypnosis; Ivy Leaf; Licorice; Lobelia inflata; Magnesium; Marshmallow; Massage; Melatonin; Mullein; Onion; Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs); Osteopathic Manipulation; Picrorhiza; Quercetin; Reishi; Relaxation Therapy; Selenium; Sublingual Immunotherapy; Vitamin B 6; Vitamin B 12; Vitamin E; Yerba Santa; Yoga
People who are having an asthma attack have real trouble taking a breath. Many people with stuffy noses from hay fever or colds say, "I can't breathe," but they retain the option of breathing through the mouth. Asthmatics, however, know what "I can't breathe" really means. Instead of their nasal passages, it is the bronchial tubes in their lungs that become swollen and clogged. Breathing can become frighteningly difficult.
Asthma involves two conditions: (1) contraction of the small muscles surrounding the bronchial tubes and (2) inflammation of the lining of those tubes. Traditionally, treatment primarily addressed the first aspect of asthma; in the past two decades, though, it has become clear that tissue swelling is the underlying cause.
The conventional treatment of asthma is highly effective for most people. Treatments include both short- and long-acting bronchodilators, which relax the bronchial muscles, and anti-inflammatory medication, which helps relieve the swelling of tissue. Bronchodilators alone may be sufficient treatment for mild asthma or asthma that occurs only with exercise. Anti-inflammatory steroids in the cortisone family taken by inhalation are the mainstay of treatment for moderate to severe asthma. Although these are much safer than oral steroids, they may still increase risk of osteoporosis and other problems when they are taken in high doses or for a long time. Other drugs used to reduce inflammation include montelukast (Singulair), nedocromil (Tilade) and cromolyn (Intal). (Interestingly, Intal is derived from a Mediterranean herb named khella.) The newest drug treatment for asthma, omalizumab (Xolair), appears to be very safe and effective, but it is currently extremely expensive and, for this reason, it is seldom used.
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Warning: None of these treatments have been shown to be effective for severe asthma. Do not stop your standard asthma medication except on the advice of a physician.
The herb Tylophora indica (also called Tylophora asthmatica ) appears to offer some promise as a treatment for asthma. It has a long history of use in the traditional Ayurvedic medicine of India. However, all of the studies on this herb were performed in India decades ago and fail to reach modern standards of design and reporting.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 195 individuals with asthma, the participants who were given 40 mg of a tylophora alcohol extract daily for 6 days showed significant improvement as compared to placebo. 1 Similar results were seen in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving more than 200 individuals with asthma. 2,3 However, the design of these studies was a bit convoluted, and various pieces of information are missing from the reports, causing some difficulty in evaluating the validity of these trials.
Another double-blind study that enrolled 135 individuals and followed a more straightforward design found no benefit from tylophora. 4
The bottom line: Although tylophora is promising, larger and better studies are necessary to discover whether tylophora is truly effective.
For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full Tylophora article.
Boswellia: Possibly Helpful
The herb boswellia has shown promise as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis . It is thought to work by inhibiting inflammation. Since asthma involves inflammation as well and can be treated by some of the same drugs that treat rheumatoid arthritis, boswellia has been tried for this purpose too.
One 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 80 individuals with relatively mild asthma found that treatment with boswellia at a dose of 300 mg 3 times daily reduced the frequency of asthma attacks and improved objective measurements of breathing capacity. 9 However, further research needs to be performed to follow up this pilot study before boswellia can be described as a proven treatment for asthma.
For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full Boswellia article.
Coleus forskohlii : May Be Effective, But More Like a Drug Than an Herb
Another herb sometimes recommended for asthma also comes from India, Coleus forskohlii . While there is some preliminary evidence that it might have value, 10-12,66 this evidence is currently far too weak to be relied on. Furthermore, as presently sold, the herb is more like a drug than an herb. Natural Coleus forskohlii contains small amounts of a potent chemical called forskolin. Manufacturers deliberately modify the herb to dramatically increase its forskolin content; therefore, when using such products, one is essentially using an unlicensed drug. Forskolin appears to be safe, but more studies need to be undertaken before it can be recommended for self-treatment.
Ma Huang: Effective, But Not Safe
The Chinese herb ma huang, also called ephedra , is definitely effective for mild asthma since it contains the drug ephedrine. However, we cannot recommend using it because of safety concerns. This Chinese herb is a member of a primitive family of plants that look like thin, branching, connected straws. A related species, Ephedra nevadensis , grows wild in the American Southwest and is widely called Mormon tea. However, only the Asian species of ephedra contains the active compounds ephedrine and pseudoephedrine.
Ma huang was traditionally used by Chinese herbalists in the early stages of respiratory infections and for the short-term treatment of certain kinds of asthma, eczema, hay fever, narcolepsy, and edema.
Japanese chemists isolated ephedrine from ma huang at the turn of the twentieth century, and it soon became a primary treatment for asthma in the United States and abroad. Ephedra's other major ingredient, pseudoephedrine, became the decongestant Sudafed.
Although ephedrine can still be found in a few over-the-counter asthma drugs, physicians seldom prescribe it today. The problem is that ephedrine mimics the effects of adrenaline and causes symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, agitation, insomnia, nausea, and loss of appetite. The newer asthma drugs are much safer and easier to tolerate. This is a situation in which synthetic drugs are less dangerous than a natural one. We recommend against using ma huang for asthma.
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Herbs and Supplements
In a double-blind trial, 32 people with steroid-dependent asthma were given either placebo or essential oil of eucalyptus for 12 weeks. 47 The results showed that people using eucalyptus were more able to gradually reduce their steroid dosage than those taking placebo.
Another small double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with a Japanese herbal mixture traditionally called Saiboku-To . 43 Researchers tested the tendency of the bronchial tubes to contract in response to an asthma-producing substance called methacholine. The results indicated that use of Saiboku-To helped prevent such contractions, and also reduced lung inflammation. Another study reportedly found benefit with a combination named Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. 67
Many studies have been conducted on the effects of vitamin C in treating asthma, but the evidence that it works remains inconsistent and highly incomplete. 13,14,82
Vitamin B 6 is often mentioned as a treatment for asthma, but the evidence that it works is weak and contradictory at best. A double-blind study of 76 children with asthma found significant benefit from vitamin B 6 after the second month of usage. 16 Children in the treated group were able to reduce their doses of bronchodilators and steroids. However, a recent double-blind study of 31 adults who also used either inhaled or oral steroids did not show any benefit. 17
Supplementation with vitamin B 12 is also often said to be effective for asthma. 15 However, the scientific evidence in its favor consists almost entirely of open studies that did not attempt to eliminate the placebo effect.
One study found potential benefit with the spice Carum copticum . 81
Essential fatty acids, such as gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and those found in fish oil , as well as flaxseed oil , may inhibit inflammatory responses such as those that occur in asthma. However, of the studies that tried fish oil as a treatment for asthma, most failed to find significant clinical benefit, 21-29,41,46,96 and one study even found that fish oil can worsen aspirin-related asthma. 23 Nonetheless, there is some evidence from one research group that fish oil might be helpful for exercise-induced asthma. 55,72 There is also some interesting preliminary evidence that mothers who take fish-oil during late pregnancy may reduce the risk of asthma in their children up to 16 years later. 90
A study of 72 children with moderate, persistent asthma found that combined or single supplementation with omega-3 oils, zinc and/or vitamin C improved their symptoms and lung function. Combined supplementation was associated with greatest improvement. The reliability of these results should be questioned, however, since about 20% of children dropped out before the end of the 38-week study. 92
One study suggests that the natural substance hyaluronic acid might be helpful for asthma when taken by inhalation. 73
Natural medicine practitioners frequently recommend the flavonoid quercetin as a treatment for asthma. However, the only basis for this recommendation consists of a few, older, preliminary test tube studies that suggest it might inhibit the release of inflammatory substances from special cells called mast cells. The asthma drugs Intal (cromolyn) and Tilade (nedocromil) are believed to work in this way. However, there is significant direct evidence from human trials that Tilade and Intal taken by inhalation actually work. In contrast, no such evidence exists for quercetin taken in any manner; and it is highly unlikely that oral intake of quercetin could produce levels in the body similar to the levels used in those test tube studies.
Alternative medical literature frequently mentions magnesium as a treatment for asthma. However, this idea seems to be based primarily on the use of intravenous magnesium as an emergency treatment for asthma. When you take something by mouth, it's a very different matter from having it injected into your veins. Studies of oral magnesium for asthma have shown more negative than positive results. 53,70,76 However, some evidence exists that intravenous or inhaled magnesium may be beneficial. 31,32,54,71
Other natural products commonly recommended for asthma include the herbs aloe , Brahmi ( Bacopa monniera ), chamomile , damiana , elecampane , garlic , grindelia, horehound , hyssop , licorice , marshmallow , mullein , onion, reishi , and yerba santa , as well as the supplements adrenal extract and betaine hydrochloride . Lobelia inflata is sometimes recommended as an herbal treatment for asthma; according to traditional directions, though, it should be taken to the point of vomiting—a process we can hardly recommend. None of these treatments have any meaningful supporting evidence.
Antioxidants , such as vitamin E , beta-carotene , and selenium are frequently recommended for asthma on the grounds that they may protect inflamed lung tissue. Although, one study found that asthmatics placed on a low antioxidant diet for 10 days experienced a worsening of their symptoms, 89 there is no direct scientific evidence at this time that antioxidant supplementation improves asthma. A rather theoretical study found evidence that use of vitamin E might decrease the inflammatory response in children with asthma exposed to ozone. 59 However, a far more meaningful double-blind, placebo-controlled study found vitamin E (as 500 mg of natural vitamin E) ineffective for asthma. 60 Similarly, a large (almost 200-participant) study failed to find selenium helpful for asthma. 80
The herb picrorhiza has been advocated as a treatment for asthma, based primarily on two studies conducted in the 1970s. 83,84 However, neither of these studies reached modern scientific standards. Two subsequent, and better designed, studies of picrorhiza failed to find the herb more effective than placebo. 85,86
One study failed to find a mixture of probiotics (“friendly bacteria”) helpful for asthma in children. 87 But, another study found that a mixture of probiotic Bifidobacterium breve and prebiotic galacto/fructo-oligosaccharide may help reduce wheezing in infants with eczema. 94
Children with asthma may have reduced growth, possibly due to use of inhaled steroids. One study failed to find protective benefits with a multivitamin that contained vitamin D . 61 The tested supplement did not contain calcium. Other studies have found that combination treatment with both calcium and vitamin D may protect bone density in people taking oral corticosteroids (for various reasons, including asthma). 62
Two exceedingly preliminary studies reported by one research group has led to publicized concerns that use of the insomnia supplement melatonin may worsen night-time asthma. 56,57 However, one double-blind study of melatonin in people with asthma found evidence of improved sleep without worsening of asthma symptoms. 58
A team of three researchers analyzed 13 trials on acupuncture in the treatment of asthma. 35 These studies were scored on the basis of design quality, with a maximum possible score of 100 points. Criteria for assigning points included size of the study population, randomization procedure, description of treatment, measurement of effects, follow-up, and the like. Eight studies earned more than 50 points, and the highest score was 72 points. However, the overall quality of studies was judged to be mediocre; in any case, the results were contradictory. The conclusion was that "claims that acupuncture is effective in the treatment of asthma are not based on the results of well-performed clinical trials."
A more recent review of acupuncture for asthma came to identical conclusions. 34
Other Alternative Therapies
Some people with asthma may also have food allergies . One way to discover if you are allergic to a certain food is through eliminating potentially allergenic foods from your diet, then systematically introducing them to see if a reaction occurs. This elimination diet should only be done under the care of your doctor because of the risk of severe allergic reaction. Other ways to diagnose a food allergy include the skin scratch test and blood tests (eg, RAST or ELISA). If you do have a food allergy, eliminating the offending food from your diet might reduce asthma symptoms. 20
A special breathing technique called Buteyko breathing may reduce medication use and subjective symptoms, though it does not appear to actually improve lung function. 63,64,88
In two controlled studies, chiropractic spinal manipulation has failed to prove more effective than fake manipulation for treatment of asthma. 30,38 One study of osteopathic manipulation reportedly found benefits, but its design was flawed. 75
Researchers have also studied factors that may prevent the development of asthma . For example, by examining two large groups of children—6,963 children aged 6-13 and 9,668 children aged 6-12, researchers determined that those living on traditional farms in a rural environments were exposed to a wider range of microorganisms and had fewer cases of asthma compared to those living in suburban environments. 95 These findings help to confirm what has long been known as the hygiene hypothesis , which states that exposure to a large variety of germs early in life tends to make the immune system less susceptible to allergic conditions later in life, such as asthma. This would help explain why asthma seems to become more common as societies became wealthier and less rural.
1. Shivpuri DN, Singhal SC, Parkash D. Treatment of asthma with an alcoholic extract of Tylophora indica : a crossover, double-blind study. Ann Allergy. 1972;30:407-412.
2. Shivpuri DN, Menon MPS, Prakash D. A crossover double-blind study on Tylophora indica in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Allergy. 1969;43:145-150.
3. Mathew KK, Shivpuri DN. Treatment of asthma with alkaloids of Tylophora indica : a double-blind study. Aspects Allergy Appl Immunol. 1974;7:166-179.
4. Gupta S, George P, Gupta V, et al. Tylophora indica in bronchial asthma—a double-blind study. Indian J Med Res. 1979;69:981-989.
5. Gopalakrishnan C, Shankaranarayanan D, Nazimudeen SK, et al. Effect of tylophorine, a major alkaloid of Tylophora indica , on immunopathological and inflammatory reactions. Indian J Med Res. 1980;71:940-948.
6. Udupa AL, Udupa SL, Guruswamy MN. The possible site of anti-asthmatic action of Tylophora asthmatica on pituitary-adrenal axis in albino rats. Planta Med. 1991;57:409-413.
7. Nandi M. Physical, chemical and biological assay of Tylophora indica mother tincture-a comparative study. Br Homeopath J. 1999;88:161-165.
8. Wagner H. Search for new plant constituents with potential antiphlogistic and antiallergic activity. Planta Med. 1989;55:235-241.
9. Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. Eur J Med Res. 1998;3:511-514.
10. Kreutner W, Chapman RW, Gulbenkian A, et al. Bronchodilatory and antiallergy activity of forskolin. Eur J Pharmacol. 1985;111:1-8.
11. Yousif MH, Thulesius O. Forskolin reverses tachyphylaxis to the bronchodilator effects of salbutamol: an in-vitro study on isolated guinea-pig trachea. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999;51:181-186.
12. Bauer K, Dietersdorfer F, Sertl K, et al. Pharmacodynamic effects of inhaled dry powder formulations of fenoterol and colforsin in asthma. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1993;53:76-83.
13. Hatch GE. Asthma, inhaled oxidants, and dietary antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(suppl 3):625S-630S.
14. Bielory L, Gandhi R. Asthma and vitamin C. Ann Allergy. 1994;73:89-99.
15. Wright J. Vitamin B12: powerful protection against asthma. Int Clin Nutr Rev. 1989;9:185-188.
16. Collipp PJ, Goldzier S III, Weiss N, et al. Pyridoxine treatment of childhood bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy. 1975;35:93-97.
17. Sur S, Camara M, Buchmeier A, et al. Double-blind trial of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Ann Allergy. 1993;70:147-152.
18. Ziolo G, Samochowiec L. Study on clinical properties and mechanisms of action of Petasites in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Pharm Acta Helv. 1998;72:378-380.
19. Scheidegger C, Dahinden C, Wiesmann U. Effects of extracts and of individual components from Petasites on prostaglandin synthesis in cultured skin fibroblasts and on leucotriene synthesis in isolated human peripheral leucocytes. Pharm Acta Helv. 1998;72:376-378.
20. Onorato J, Merland N, Terral C, et al. Placebo-controlled double-blind food challenge in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986;78:1139-1146.
21. Dry J, Vincent D. Effect of a fish oil diet on asthma: results of a one-year double-blind study. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1991;95:156-157.
22. Stenius-Aarniala B, Aro A, Hakulinen A, et al. Evening primrose oil and fish oil are ineffective as supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy. 1989;62:534-547.
23. Picado C, Castillo JA, Schinca N, et al. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax. 1988;43:93-97.
24. Arm J. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil on asthmatic responses to antigen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;81:183.
25. Stenius-Aarniala B, Aro A, Hakulinen A, et al. Symptomatic effects of evening primrose oil, fish oil, and olive oil in patients with bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy. 1985;55:330.
26. Thien FCK, Woods RK, Walters EH. Oily fish and asthma—a fishy story? Med J Aust. 1996;164:135-136.
27. Arm JP, Thien FCK, Lee TH. Leukotrienes, fish oil, and asthma. Allergy Proc. 1994;15:129-134.
28. Lee TH, Arm JP. Prospects for modifying the allergic response by fish oil diets. Clin Allergy. 1986;16:89-100.
29. Woods RK, Thien FC, Abramson MJ. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;1-12.
30. Nielsen NH, Bronfort G, Bendix T, et al. Chronic asthma and chiropractic spinal manipulation: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 1995;25:80-88.
31. Monteleone CA, Sherman AR. Nutrition and asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:23-34.
32. Rolla G, Bucca C, Arossa W, et al. Magnesium attenuates methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Magnesium. 1987;6:201-204.
33. Berger D, Nolte D. Acupuncture-has it a demonstrable bronchospasmolytic effect in bronchial asthma? [in German; English abstract]. Med Klin. 1975;70:1827-1830.
34. Davis PA, Chang C, Hackman RM, et al. Acupuncture in the treatment of asthma: a critical review. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1998;26:263-271.
35. Kleijnen J, ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Acupuncture and asthma: a review of controlled trials. Thorax. 1991;46:799-802.
36. Biernacki W, Peake MD. Acupuncture in treatment of stable asthma. Respir Med. 1998;92:1143-1145.
37. Chow OKW, So SY, Lam WK, et al. Effect of acupuncture on exercise-incuded asthma. Lung. 1983;161:321-326.
38. Balon J, Aker PD, Crowther ER, et al. A comparison of active and simulated chiropractic manipulation as adjunctive treatment for childhood asthma. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1013-1020.
39. Huntley A, White AR, Ernst E. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review Thorax. 2002;57:127-131.
40. Hosseini S, et al. Pycnogenol® in the management of asthma. J Med Food. 2001;4:201-210
41. Nagakura T, Matsuda S, Shichijyo K, et al. Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma. Eur Respir J. 2000;16:861-865.
42. Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Krasnoschekova O, et al. Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel: a randomised clinical trial. Eur Respir J. 2002;20:596-600.
43. Urata Y, Yoshida S, Irie Y, et al. Treatment of asthma patients with herbal medicine TJ-96: a randomized controlled trial. Respir Med. 2002;96:469-474.
44. Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant. Allergy. 2000;55:1184-1189.
45. Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Prevention of exercise-induced asthma by a natural isomer mixture of beta-carotene. Ann Allerg Asthma Immunol. 1999;82:549-553.
46. Mihrshahi S, Peat JK, Marks GB, et al. Eighteen-month outcomes of house dust mite avoidance and dietary fatty acid modification in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:162-168.
47. Juergens UR, Dethlefsen U, Steinkamp G, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Respir Med. 2003;97:250-256.
48. Hackman RM, Stern JS, Gershwin ME. Hypnosis and asthma: a critical review. J Asthma. 2000;37:1-15.
49. Field T, Henteleff T, Hernandez-Reif M, et al. Children with asthma have improved pulmonary functions after massage therapy. J Pediatr. 1998;132:854-858.
50. Lewith GT, Watkins AD. Unconventional therapies in asthma: an overview. Allergy. 1996;51:761-769.
51. Lau BH, Riesen SK, Truong KP, et al. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma. J Asthma. 2005;41:825-832.
52. Hofmann D, Hecker M, Volp A. Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma—a review of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:213-220.
53. Fogarty A, Lewis S, Scrivener S, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:1355-1359.
54. Hughes R, Goldkorn A, Masoli M, et al. Use of isotonic nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to salbutamol in treatment of severe asthma in adults: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:2114-2117.
55. Mickleborough TD, Murray RL, Ionescu AA, et al. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print].
56. Sutherland ER, Ellison MC, Kraft M, et al. Elevated serum melatonin is associated with the nocturnal worsening of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:513-517.
57. Sutherland ER, Martin RJ, Ellison MC, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of melatonin in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:1055-1061.
58. Campos FL, Da Silva-Junior FP, De Bruin VM, et al. Melatonin improves sleep in asthma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Aug 11. [Epub ahead of print]
59. Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macias H, et al. Antioxidant supplementation and nasal inflammatory responses among young asthmatics exposed to high levels of ozone. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;138:317-22.
60. Pearson PJ, Lewis SA, Britton J, et al. Vitamin E supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax. 2004;59:652-656.
61. Schou AJ, Heuck C, Wolthers OD. Does vitamin D administered to children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids affect short-term growth or bone turnover? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003;36:399-404.
62. Homik J, Suarez-Almazor ME, Shea B, et al. Calcium and vitamin D for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;2:CD000952.
63. Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, et al. Effect of two breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax. 2003;58:674-679.
64. Bowler DS, Green A, Mitchell CA. Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial. MJA. 1998;169:575-578.
65. Cooper S, Oborne J, Newton S, et al. Effect of two breathing exercises (Buteyko and pranayama) in asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax. 2003;58:674-679.
66. Gonzalez-Sanchez R, Trujillo X, Trujillo-Hernandez B, et al. Forskolin versus sodium cromoglycate for prevention of asthma attacks: a single-blinded clinical trial. J Int Med Res. 2006;34:200-207.
67. Hsu CH, Lu CM, Chang TT, et al. Efficacy and safety of modified Mai-Men-Dong-Tang for treatment of allergic asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005;16:76-81.
68. Falk B, Gorev R, Zigel L, et al. Effect of lycopene supplementation on lung function after exercise in young athletes who complain of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction symptoms. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:480-485.
69. Murali PM, Rajasekaran S, Krishnarajasekar OR, et al. Plant-Based Formulation for Bronchial Asthma: A Controlled Clinical Trial to Compare Its Efficacy with Oral Salbutamol and Theophylline. Respiration. 2005 Nov 22. [Epub ahead of print]
70. Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
71. Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, et al. Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2005;128:337-344.
72. Mickleborough TD, Lindley MR, Ionescu AA, Fly AD. Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Chest. 2006;129;39-49.
73. Petrigni G, Allegra L. Aerosolised hyaluronic acid prevents exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting novel hypotheses on the correction of matrix defects in asthma. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jan 3. [Epub ahead of print]
74. Sabina AB, Williams AL, Wall HK, et al. Yoga intervention for adults with mild-to-moderate asthma: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:543-548.
75. Guiney PA, Chou R, Vianna A, et al. Effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment on pediatric patients with asthma: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005;105:7-12.
76. Bernstein WK, Khastgir T, Khastgir A, et al. Lack of effectiveness of magnesium in chronic stable asthma. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in normal subjects and in patients with chronic stable asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:271-276 .
77. Gvozdjakova A, Kucharska J, Bartkovjakova M, et al. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces corticosteroids dosage in patients with bronchial asthma. Biofactors. 2006;25:235-240.
78. Niu CK, Chen WY, Huang JL, et al. Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with high-dose mite extracts in asthma: a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study in Taiwan. Respir Med. 2006;100:1374-1383.
79. Ram FS, Robinson SM, Black PN. Effects of physical training in asthma: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2000;34:162-167.
80. Shaheen SO, Newson RB, Rayman MP, et al. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation in adult asthma. Thorax. 2007 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]
81. Boskabady MH, Alizadeh M, Jahanbin B. Bronchodilatory effect of Carum copticum in airways of asthmatic patients. Therapie. 2007;62:23-29.
82. Tecklenburg SL, Mickleborough TD, Fly AD, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Respir Med. 2007 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]
83. Rajaram D. A preliminary clinical trial of Picrorrhiza kurroa in bronchial asthma. Indian J Pharmacol. 1975;7:95-96.
84. Shah BK, Kamat SR, Sheth UK. Preliminary report of use of Picrorrhiza kurroa root in bronchial asthma. J Postgrad Med. 1977;23:118-120.
85. Doshi VB, Shetye VM, Mahashur AA, Kamat SR. Picrorrhiza kurroa in bronchial asthma. J Postgrad Med. 1983;29:89-95.
86. Thomas M, Sheran J, Smith N, et al. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC Pulm Med. 2007;7:4.
87. Giovannini M, Agostoni C, Riva E, et al. A randomized prospective double blind controlled trial on effects of long-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei in pre-school children with allergic asthma and/or rhinitis. Pediatr Res. 2007 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print]
88. Cowie RL, Conley DP, Underwood MF, Reader PG. A randomised controlled trial of the Buteyko technique as an adjunct to conventional management of asthma. Respir Med. 2008 Jan 30
89. Wood LG, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG. Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma: Proof of concept. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:94-102.
90. Olsen SF, Osterdal ML, Salvig JD, et al. Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:167-175.
91. Schubert R, Kitz R, Beermann C, et al. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma after low-dose allergen challenge. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008 Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print]
92. Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, Kasrawi MA, Attia M. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:737-42.
93. Vempati R, Bijlani RL, Deepak KK. The efficacy of a comprehensive lifestyle modification programme based on yoga in the management of bronchial asthma: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pulm Med. 2009;9:37.
94. van der Aa LB, van Aalderen WM, Heymans HS, et al. Synbiotics prevent asthma-like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis. Allergy. 2010 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print]
95. Ege MJ, Mayer M, Normand AC, et al. Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(8):701-709.
Last reviewed July 2012 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright (C) 2011 EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.